The wooden shoe provides the clinician with an alternative
option to conventional farriery when treating a variety of
foot problems such as acute/chronic laminitis, white line
disease, distal phalanx fractures and poor-quality hoof
capsules. The wooden shoe provides a simpliﬁed method to
apply many of the principles of therapeutic farriery which
include redistributing the load or forces on the foot,
repositioning breakover and providing heel elevation when
necessary. Understanding the biomechanics of the wooden shoe
along with understanding good basic farriery which include
the appropriate foot trim, proper size, ﬁt and placement of
the wooden shoe on the foot combined with the appropriate
application are essential for consistent success. This paper
outlines what is considered to be the proper application of
the wooden shoe.
There are many practical farriery options available to the
clinician when an alternative to a horseshoe may be
necessary or preferred. The wooden shoe has become a simple,
practical and very effective farriery option for treating
not only chronic laminitis but a variety of other foot
problems (Steward 2003; O’Grady et al. 2007; O’Grady and
Parks 2008; O’Grady and Steward 2009; Parks and O’Grady
2009, 2015; O’Grady 2010, 2011) (Fig 1).
Fig 1: a) Ground surface and b) side view
wooden shoe. Note the bevel around the
of the shoe and the ﬂat platform on the
problems that may beneﬁt from the wooden shoe are
acute/chronic laminitis, extensive white line disease,
fractures of the distal phalanx/navicular bone and horses
that have feet with thin deformable soles. The wooden shoe
should only be used as a transitional device to stabilise
the hoof capsule, promote hoof wall growth at the coronet
and increase sole depth. Once the structures of the hoof
capsule have improved with sufﬁcient mass to achieve
stability and realignment of the distal phalanx within the
hoof capsule in the case of chronic laminitis, conventional
farriery is used or the horse can be left barefoot. The
wooden shoe is simple to apply but, as with any procedure,
there is a learning curve such that it is essential to
follow a procedural model. Understanding the biomechanics of
the wooden shoe coupled with understanding good basic
farriery which include the appropriate foot trim, proper
size, ﬁt and placement of the wooden shoe on the foot along
with its proper application are essential. It must be stated
from the onset, that the application of the wooden shoe must
be combined with the appropriate foot trim for the clinician
to achieve consistent effective results from this modality.
Chronic laminitis is the disease most often treated with the
wooden shoe, so its use here will be stressed when
describing the overall procedure.
The wooden shoe has all the mechanical aspects that can be
incorporated in other farriery systems previously described
yet it may possess some additional advantages over previous
methods. A major advantage of the wooden shoe, coupled with
the trim, is its ability to redistribute the load (weight)
evenly over a speciﬁed section of the foot due to its ﬂat
solid construction (O’Grady and Steward 2009; Parks and
O’Grady 2009; O’Grady 2010, 2011). Silastic material added
to the solar surface of the foot further increases the
surface area of the foot enhancing the effects of placing
one ﬂat surface against another (Parks and O’Grady 2015).
Another advantage is its nontraumatic application that
eliminates the necessity to use local anaesthesia in the
case of chronic laminitis or other painful foot problems
(O’Grady and Steward 2009; Parks and O’Grady 2015).
The wooden shoe is constructed from readily accessible
(wood) or can be purchased commercially.1 Breakover and heel
elevation can be fabricated into the shoe and the beveled
perimeter of the shoe decreases the torque on the lamellae
at breakover by moving the ground reaction force axially.
The beveled perimeter of the shoe also appears to
concentrate the load (weight) under the distal phalanx due
to the solid base of the shoe. Heel elevation, when
necessary, can be applied in a uniform manner by altering
the shape of the wooden shoe or by attaching a degree pad to
the foot surface of the shoe. The shoe can be easily
adjusted using radiographic guidelines and the biomechanical
or structural requirements of the individual foot
The wooden shoe addresses three of the principles used in
applying therapeutic farriery. The ﬁrst is to redistribute
the load (weight of the horse) or unload the forces on a
section of the ground surface of the foot. Secondly, to
reposition breakover and lastly, to provide heel elevation
when necessary to decrease the tension in the deep digital
ﬂexor tendon (DDFT) (O’Grady 2006, 2011; Parks 2011, 2012;
Parks and O’Grady 2015). These three principles are
especially relevant when treating chronic laminitis. To
understand these principles, it is necessary to brieﬂy
consider foot biomechanics and the moments about the distal
interphalangeal joint (Eliashar 2007; Parks 2011, 2012;
Parks and O’Grady 2015). In a standing horse, the weight of
the horse borne by the limb exerts a force on the ground
which is opposed by an equal and opposite force, the ground
reaction force (GRF). The GRF acts on any point of the foot
touching the ground. The summation of these forces can be
calculated to have a central point of action which is termed
the centre of pressure(COP). The position of the centre of
pressure varies depending on foot conformation and trimming
but will be located dorsal to the centre of rotation (COR)
of the distal interphalangeal joint (DIPJ). The GRF being
dorsal to the COR creates a moment about the distal
interphalangeal joint termed the extensor moment. The
extensor moment must be opposed by an equal and opposite
moment, which is termed the ﬂexor moment. A moment is the
product of a force and its distance from a reference point
to cause a body to rotate about an axis which in this case,
is the centre of rotation of the distal interphalangeal
joint. At rest, the extensor moment is the product of the
weight borne by the limb (a force) and the horizontal
distance from the point at which the ground reaction force
acts on the foot (COP) and the centre of rotation of the
distal interphalangeal joint. The ﬂexor moment opposes the
extensor moment and is the product of the force (tension) in
the tendon and the shortest distance of the DDFT from the
centre of rotation (Fig 2a).
Fig 2: a) The biomechanical forces
exerted on the foot and the moments about
DIPJ. b) The GRF moving dorsally in the toe
during mid-stance and breakover (Image
of Andrew Parks).
The GRF determines the
subsequent compressive and tensile stresses that are placed
on the dorsal section of the foot. If a horse is standing on
its limb, the weight of the horse acts on the foot through
the COR and is relatively constant, but the position of the
GRF where it acts on the ground surface of the foot can be
shifted away from the affected area or redistributed. At
breakover, the ﬂexor moment begins to exceed the extensor
moment such that the GRF moves dorsally to the toe at which
point the heels lift off the ground (Fig 2b). As the
moves dorsally, it places greater force at the toe; a force
that can potentially be disruptive. The thickness of the
wooden shoe allows breakover to be placed in the shoe
further palmarly than conventional shoes. This reduces the
extensor moment arm, brings the GRF closer to the centre of
rotation and reduces tension in the DDFT (Fig 3a).
concept of changing the point of breakover can be clearly
demonstrated by creating a bevel in two pieces of wood that
are of different thickness (Fig 3b).
Fig 3: a) The extensor moment about the
DIPJ can be moved further palmarly in a
shoe when compared with a conventional
(Image courtesy of Andrew Parks). b) This
Illustrates how the tilt (breakover) can be
increased when a bevel is created in two
of wood of different thicknesses. Note the
increased breakover in the thicker block.
created around the perimeter of the wooden shoe will reduce
the moment which decreases the force required to breakover
in a medial or lateral direction with less stress on the
tissues (Fig 4).
Fig 4: This illustrates the bevel in the
wooden shoe that shifts the GRF axially
decreases the moment about the DIPJ and
breakover in a mediolateral direction (Image
courtesy of Andrew Parks).
Finally, combined with the
and impression material placed in the frog sulci, one ﬁrm
ﬂat surface (the foot) is created and now placed against the
wooden shoe; the distribution of force becomes larger and
more uniform because weight bearing is widely distributed
across the palmar section of the foot.
Construction of the shoe
The author prefers wood due to its accessibility, light
weight, the ease with which it can be constructed/shaped
(both before and after application), malleability and its
ability to dissipate energy at impact while remaining rigid
(Reid 1994). There are shoes available commercially that
have an ethyl vinyl acetate (EVA) pad substituted for the
thicker ¾ inch section of plywood that is beveled. EVA is an
extremely elastic material that can be sintered to form a
porous material similar to rubber yet has resilience. The
compressibility of this material distributes the load across
the surface of the foot, however, it does wear and compress
unevenly relative to the load placed on the limb causing the
angle and the forces on the foot to change. Although more
time consuming, the author prefers to use wood which can be
fabricated according to the conformation of the foot, the
integrity of the structures and the radiographs.
shoe can be constructed using any steel or aluminum shoe
with a broad toe that is available in sizes 00–5 as a
template.2 The basic shoe is made from two pieces of
plywood. One piece of plywood is 6.3–9.5 mm (1/4–3/8 in)
thick (depending on the thickness of the shoe required) and
the second piece is 19 mm (3/4 in) thick. Using the aluminum
shoe as a template, the thinner piece of plywood is cut out
with a vertical border while the thicker piece is cut out
with the border straight or beveled at a 30-degree angle
across the palmar or heel section and a 45-degree angle
around the perimeter of the block using an angle saw3
Fig 5: a) Using a template to cut a shoe
from a wooden block with an angle saw. b)
Commercially purchased wooden shoe that has
reshaped to create the appropriate bevels
a belt sander or a grinder.
The straight or decreased angle across the
section of the shoe prevents rocking backwards during
landing. The two pieces of plywood are glued together with
the thinner portion proximal and then two 1-inch drywall
screws or wood screws are inserted on the ground surface of
the shoe for additional security. A wood rasp or belt sander
is used to blend the cut angles into a uniform smooth slope.
Plywood can also be purchased in a solid 45 mm (1.8 in)
thickness which eliminates the necessity to cut two pieces.
Alternatively, the wooden shoe is available commercially and
can be easily modiﬁed with a belt sander or a hoof rasp to
match the wooden shoe that was described above3 (Fig
Shoe height is dictated by the conformation of the hoof and
the amount of displacement of the distal phalanx present,
that is, the greater the rotation of the distal phalanx, the
more shoe height is necessary in order to achieve the
appropriate palmar placement of breakover. If the sole is
prolapsed or the distal phalanx has penetrated the sole, a
recess can be created in the dorsal foot surface of the shoe
by cutting a half moon shape in the thinner piece of plywood
using a router or a hand grinder to create a trough in the
shoe below the area of the sole or bone that has prolapsed.
If it is determined that heel elevation is required, the
heels can be raised accordingly by applying a wedge pad to
the foot surface of the wooden shoe. The angle of the wedge
is usually 2–3 degrees depending on the amount of heel horn
removed. The wedge pad is attached to the shoe with 1-inch
drywall screws or wood screws. An alternative method to
raise the heels is to cut the ground surface of the wooden
shoe itself at an angle to the hoof surface.
Radiographs are essential when applying the wooden shoe. The
lateral view evaluates the distal phalanx and related soft
tissue structures of the foot in a sagittal plane while the
dorsopalmar view evaluates these structures in a frontal
plane. High quality radiographs are required to visualise
the osseous structures, the hoof capsule and related soft
tissue structures in order to evaluate any disease process,
hoof conformation, the position of the distal phalanx within
the hoof capsule, position of the DIPJ and especially the
soft tissue structures. The radiographs are also used as a
guideline for trimming the foot as well as positioning and
applying the wooden shoe (Fig 6).
Fig 6: A lateral and dorsopalmar
radiograph view. The lateral radiograph
good foot conformation where the yellow line
the centre of rotation and the green line is
widest part of the foot. DP view shows the
distal phalanx displaced medially.
used to identify dorsal rotation or displacement of the
distal phalanx when evaluating chronic laminitis but it does
not allow identiﬁcation of asymmetrical medial or lateral
distal displacement of the distal phalanx (O’Grady et al.
2007; O’Grady 2010; Parks and O’Grady 2015). Therefore, a
dorsopalmar (0-degree dorsopalmar) radiographic projection
should always be included as part of the radiographic study
for either acute or chronic laminitis.
features of chronic laminitis are well documented (Redden
2003; Sherlock and Parks 2013). lateral radiograph will
allow the clinician to assess the thickness of the dorsal
hoof wall, the descent of the distal phalanx within the hoof
capsule, the degree of dorsal rotation of the distal
phalanx, the angle of the solar border of the distal phalanx
relative to the ground, the distance between the dorsal
limit of the solar margin of the distal phalanx and the
ground and the thickness of the sole. The dorsopalmar
radiograph will reveal if asymmetrical distal displacement
of the distal phalanx on either the lateral or medial side
is present and whether the width of the hoof wall is thicker
than normal on the affected side. A useful template can be
superimposed on the lateral radiograph and then transferred
to the foot for use as a guideline for the appropriate trim
and placement of the wooden shoe in cases of chronic
laminitis (O’Grady and Steward 2009; Parks and O’Grady 2015)
Fig 7: a) A schematic illustration of a
radiograph with dorsal capsular rotation
the lines drawn parallel to the solar
the distal phalanx and the line drawn
to the parietal surface of the distal
(Image courtesy of Andrew Parks). b) The
illustration applied to a radiograph with
capsular rotation. Black line represents
Application of the shoe
Before beginning the trim, the horse should be
observed in motion, noting the degree of lameness, if
present, on the straight and on turns. The strike
the horse is determined whether the horse lands ﬂat,
markedly heel ﬁrst, toe ﬁrst or lands asymmetrically on
side of the hoof capsule. The initial step to trim the
in all cases is to draw a line across the widest part of
foot. The widest part of the foot is 5–10 mm dorsal to
COR which makes it a good guideline to begin the trim.
frog is trimmed by removing any loose exfoliating horn
the hoof wall is rasped from the middle of the foot
to where the hoof wall at the heels and the frog are on
same plane. This creates additional ground surface from
middle of the foot to the heels which moves the load in
In most cases where the wooden shoe is
used, the dorsal section of the foot will be compromised
with limited sole thickness, so the toe length can be
reduced using the nippers in a vertical direction
to the radiograph or by rasping the dorsal hoof wall
(O’Grady 2010; Parks and O’Grady 2015).
superimposed on a radiograph can be used as a guide when
trimming the case with chronic laminitis (O’Grady 2010;
Parks and O’Grady 2015) (Fig 7).
The quarters and
the hoof wall are trimmed from the widest part of the
palmarly to coincide with line 1 drawn distal and
to the solar margin of the distal phalanx on the
The solar surface of the foot dorsal to the widest part of
the foot is not trimmed. The toe length is reduced
from the dorsal hoof wall according to line 2 drawn dorsal
to the parietal surface of the distal phalanx. If possible,
the ideal end product when trimmed according to the
template, will have two different planes on the ground
surface of the foot with the heels of the hoof capsule and
the frog on the same plane (Fig 8a). This method of
redistributes the load to the palmar section of the foot and
functionally unloads the toe.
Fig 8: a) The two planes on the solar
surface of the foot when trimming for
realignment of the distal phalanx. Note the
position of the block on the foot using the
widest part of the foot as a guide. b) A
pad added to the wooden shoe for heel
(Image courtesy of Andrew Parks).
Following the trim, the foot
is placed on the ground and the horse is observed to see
whether the heel of the foot is touching the ground at rest.
In motion, the horse is observed for signs of lameness or
increased lameness following the trim and whether it lands
toe ﬁrst in a straight line. If any of these signs are
present, heel elevation will be necessary to compensate for
the increase in tension in the deep digital ﬂexor tendon
caused by trimming the heels of the hoof capsule. Heel
elevation is easily added to the wooden shoe using a wedge
pad (O’Grady 2010; Parks and O’Grady 2015) (Fig 8b).
Fitting and applying the shoe
The foot surface of a wooden shoe is measured from dorsal to
palmar drawing a line across the middle of the shoe. The
correct size of the shoe is determined by superimposing the
line drawn across the widest part of the foot and the line
drawn across the shoe over each other; allowing the wooden
shoe to extend marginally beyond the perimeter of the hoof
capsule and 1–3 cm palmar to the trimmed heel. Using a 2 mm
diameter drill bit, multiple guide holes are drilled from
the solar surface proximally through the lateral and medial
side of the hoof wall on the abaxial side of the sole wall
junction (white line) beginning at the widest part of the
foot and continuing towards the heel.
Screws placed palmar
to the widest part of the foot will maintain the two planes
created by the trim and help unload the toe. These holes are
predrilled in the solar surface of the foot to ensure
accurate screw placement in the wall. The author prefers
drywall screws, although they tend to be brittle, they are
thinner in diameter and have a coarser thread. A 3.9 9 38 mm
course thread tapered drywall screw or 4.2 9 38 mm tapered
wood screw is placed in each hole on the outer hoof wall
directed distally towards the ground surface and screwed in
until just visible on the ground surface. Any exfoliating
horn is removed from the frog and the frog sulci and the
adjacent area is cleaned with a wire brush. Copper sulfate
crystals (powder) are often applied to the cleaned area for
its antiseptic properties before applying the impression
To recruit the sole, bars, frog and frog sulci for
weight bearing, deformable impression material (IM)4 is
applied to the palmar section of the foot being careful that
the impression material just covers the intended structures
and does not extend beyond the bearing border of the foot
surface to create pressure. With the foot off the ground,
the shoe is now set in place, two or three screws are
screwed into the shoe and the foot is placed on the ground
to bear weight. This allows the impression material to
conform between the palmar section of the foot and the shoe,
thus creating two ﬂat surfaces. After the remaining screws
are inserted, additional screws can be placed in the wooden
shoe against the outer surface of the hoof wall at the heels
to act as struts to provide stability and act as an anchor
for the casting tape. With the foot on the ground and using
a rasp as a straight edge, a vertical line is viewed from
the dorsal aspect of the coronary band to the ground, marked
on the side of the wooden shoe and then a line is drawn
across the ground surface of the shoe (Fig 9a).
Fig 9: a) A rasp positioned vertically
dorsal to the coronet to mark the position
breakover. b) Breakover being created in the
wooden shoe with a rasp at the designated
breakover to this point in the shoe is easily accomplished
by extending the bevel to this line using a hoof rasp with
the foot being held between the farrier’s knees (so called
farrier position) (Fig 9b). The line across the shoe
where the breakover point of the shoe should be positioned
which will consistently be just dorsal to the solar margin
of the distal phalanx when viewed on a radiograph (Fig
Fig 10: Wooden shoe applied to the foot
with corresponding lateral radiograph. Black
line is the COR that correlates with the
part of the foot and red line is the
breakover. Note the screw placed against the
side of the hoof wall at the heel termed a
to anchor the casting tape.
Orthopaedic felt or impression material is placed across the
bulbs of the heels and 2-inch casting tape5 is applied
around the perimeter of the foot forming an attachment
between the hoof wall, screws and wooden shoe. The casting
tape provides circumferential stability that when attached
to the screws not only adds security but may decrease ﬂaring
of the hoof wall during weight bearing that appears to pull
the sole distally (Thomason 2007; O’Grady 2010; Parks and
O’Grady 2015). Following application of the wooden shoes,
horses are allowed brief periods of controlled exercise
according to their comfort level. The exercise can be in the
form of hand walking or turn out in a small paddock. Horses
are radiographed at 4-5 weeks to assess improvement of the
soft tissue structures and the wooden shoes left in place
until the desired results are achieved, reset if necessary
or transferred to conventional shoes (Fig 11).
Fig 11: Radiographs show the conformation
of the foot before application of the wooden
shoe and the change in the soft tissue
structures 4 weeks after application.
Unilateral displacement of the distal phalanx
Unilateral displacement of the distal phalanx in a
mediolateral direction commonly occurs because of
overloading one side of the foot or from laminitis.
Unilateral displacement can occur in two clinical scenarios.
The ﬁrst context is less recognised where one side of the
foot is overloaded and the distal phalanx descends. Here,
the limb conformation of the horse leads to an asymmetric
landing which causes disproportionate loading on one side of
the foot. Hoof characteristics would include an offset foot,
a sheared heel, compressed growth rings and decreased growth
at the coronet above the displaced heel (Fig 12a).
Fig 12: a) A radiograph of a foot with
unilateral displacement without laminitis.
line is the tilt of the bone, yellow arrow
widened joint space, circle is decreased
thickness and white arrows are position of
coronet noting proximally displaced heel on
affected side. b) A radiograph of unilateral
displacement with laminitis. Note the
in hoof wall thickness with the affected
second scenario, the horse will have clinical signs of
laminitis, radiographic evidence of not only displacement or
rotation in the dorsal section of the foot but also
unilateral displacement of the distal phalanx as noted on
the DP radiographic view. The hoof wall on the displaced
side of the foot will be thickened compared with the
contralateral side due to the diseased lamellae (Sherlock
and Parks 2013; Parks and O’Grady 2015) (Fig 12b).
the apparent asymmetry of the distal phalanx within the hoof
capsule visible on radiographs, a clinician’s ﬁrst response
might intuitively be to try and restore the asymmetry of the
distal interphalangeal joint and the position of the distal
phalanx in relation to the ground. This would most readily
be accomplished by raising the side of the hoof on which the
distal phalanx is displaced. However, this practice will
increase the weight bearing on the affected side and cause
the distal phalanx to displace further in relation to the
hoof capsule, along with increased discomfort. Horses with
unilateral displacement show an increased distance between
the distal phalanx and the hoof wall on the affected side
which indicates weight bearing by the wall on the displaced
side would have increased leverage on the hoof capsule, thus
potentially shifting the centre of pressure towards the
Theoretically, the hoof capsule can be
stabilised in relation to the distal phalanx by increasing
weight bearing on the contralateral side and reducing weight
bearing on the affected side. Biomechanically, the weight of
the horse is opposed by the GRF which is exerted on the foot
at every point of contact. The GRF acts on the foot through
the COP, therefore, changing the placement of the shoe
should effectively change the centre of pressure. The COP is
important because it determines the distribution of stresses
within the hoof; therefore, changing the position of the
wooden shoe will cause an asymmetrical redistribution of
pressure on the ground surface of the foot that will change
the COP (Fig 13a). The author has been successful in
controlling mediolateral displacement by setting the wooden
shoe wide on the unaffected side (O’Grady et al. 2007;
O’Grady 2010; Parks and O’Grady 2015).
Fig 13: a) The biomechanical concept of
moving the COP (Image courtesy of Andrew
b) The extension of the wooden shoe on the
unaffected side of the foot.
The foot is trimmed as described above making sure the hoof
wall and frog are on the same plane and that either the
lateral or medial hoof wall is not lowered more than the
other. Any signiﬁcant ﬂare on the affected side of the foot
is reduced with a rasp from the outer hoof wall and
impression material is placed in the palmar section of the
foot to make it load sharing. The wooden shoe is ﬁtted to
the foot such that it is ﬂush or tight on the affected side
and then forms a 6.3–9.5 mm (1/4–3/8-in) extension beyond
the perimeter of the wall on the unaffected side of the foot
(O’Grady et al. 2007; O’Grady 2010; Parks and O’Grady 2015)
The wooden shoe provides another consistently effective
farriery option when treating a variety of foot problems
especially laminitis. The case selection in this paper
deliberately excludes laminitis patients deemed to have a
very poor prognosis. The author, and many of his colleagues,
contend that, for welfare and ethical reasons, such horses
are euthanasia candidates and should not be subjected to
additional pain and suffering with little to no chance of
success. Horses selected, although painful, were judged to
have sufficient integrity of the hoof structures in which to
apply the appropriate trim and use the biomechanical aspects
of the wooden shoe to get improvement. Results from the
authors practice and consulting service during the last five
years treating acute and chronic laminitis, white line
disease, distal phalanx fractures and improving the
structures using the wooden shoe in a large number of cases
showed consistent improvement which was considered a success
The magnitude of the bevel of the wooden shoe decreases the
stress on the entire circumference of the lamellae and soft
tissues at breakover, an effect which is often difﬁcult to
produce with traditional shoes. Cutting the perimeter of the
wooden shoe at a 45-degree angle or bevel around the
circumference of the shoe appears to decrease the
dorsal/lateral/medial torque on the lamellae, especially
when the horse turns. The ﬂat ﬁrm plane of the wooden shoe,
combined with the impression material in the palmar section
of the foot, allows load sharing across the ground surface
of the foot which further decreases the load borne by the
dorsal hoof wall. This concept of load sharing is very
helpful in a horse with compromised foot conformation that
has limited viable hoof structures in a given section of the
Furthermore, therapeutic shoes are often deﬁcient in
providing sufﬁcient breakover and heel elevation due to the
physical limits of the particular shoe, whereas increasing
the height of the wooden shoe allows the desired
biomechanics to be fabricated into the shoe. For this
author, the wooden shoe has been a very effective farriery
option for treating a variety of conditions. Given that the
principles behind the application of any shoeing technique
are more important than the technique itself, clearly there
is more than one way to accomplish many of the intended
goals. The simplicity of construction, ease of adaptation,
combined with the light weight in relation to height
provides advantages that are often hard to match with a
traditional steel or aluminum shoe. Therefore, in the
author’s practice, it has become the method of choice for
treating horses with acute and chronic laminitis, while line
disease, distal phalanx fractures and certain distortions of
the hoof capsule.
Author's declaration of interests
No conflicts of interest have been declared.
Ethical animal research
Declaration of Ethics
Source of funding
1Equicast, Inc. 575 SE Broad Street Southern
Pines, North Carolina, USA.
2EDSS Inc, Penrose, Colorado, USA.
3Sears, Roebuck and Co., Hoffman Estates,
4Equilox, Inc. Pine Island, Minnesota, USA.
53M Animal Care Products, St Paul, Minnesota,
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